Geography of Jorhat

Tea Garden JorhatThe beautiful town of Jorhat is the gateway to Upper Assam in Assam. The name “Jorhat” is a combination of two Assamese words "Jor" meaning two and "haat" meaning markets. The two markets in Jorhat being “Macharhat” and “Chowkihat” which have existence since the time of Ahom rule in Assam.

Jorhat Location and Climate

Jorhat is located between the Brahmaputra on the north and Nagaland on the south. Jorhat is located at an average elevation of 116 metres between 26.75°N 94.22°E. The total geographical area of Jorhat district is 2,859.35 sq km which is equivalent to 3.63 % of the state. To the east of Jorhat district lies the Sivsagar district, to the west lies Golaghat district, to the north is Lakhimpur district and to the south lays the state of Nagaland. The average annual temperature in Jorhat remains at 26 °C. Summer temperature of Jorhat is 25-35 °C and winter temperature is 22-10 °C.

On the basis of climate, physiography, soil, flood proneness, socio economic condition and cropping pattern, the Jorhat district is classified into six Agro-Ecological Situations. Out of these four (Humid Alluvial Flood Prone Situation, Chararea, Humid Alluvial Flood Free and High land) have been identified for agriculture purpose and two are related with Forest and Tea Growing area. The principal crops grown in Jorhat are wheat, pea, lentin, mustard, potato, sugarcane, pumpkin, banana, Assam lemon etc. The predominant field crop is rice and the per capita food grain production is of 205 Kg per annum.

Jorhat is located by the Brahmaputra river. The river Brahmaputra on the north of the Jorhat district forms the largest riverine island of the world Majuli spreading over 924.6 sq. Km.  Situated at the latitude of 26°45 ´ N to 27°12 ´ N and longitude of 93°39 ´ E – 94°35 ´ E Majuli is world’s largest river island. Majuli is known for the practice of the Vaishnava culture and as such there are several “sattras” in majuli where Vaishnava culture is practiced. Majuli possesses rare species of flora and fauna and is also a bio-diversity hotspot. The river island faces the problem of flood every year.

The Jorhat district possesses varied biodiversity. Several species of flora and fauna is found in the district. The Kaziranga National Park is located near Jorhat. The park has extensive variety of flora and fauna. Having an area of 430 km2 the park is famous as the home to the one-horned rhinoceros found in its highest number here. The Jorhat district also is home to the Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary having an area of 21 km2. A protected area the Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary is home to India’s only gibbons- the hoolock gibbons and Northeast India’s only nocturnal primate- the Bengal slow loris. Another forest called Mulai Kathoni, a man made forest covering 550 hectares of area on a Brahmaputra river sandbar is also located here near Kokilamukh area.

The main resource of Jorhat is tea. Jorhat is also known as the “Tea Capital of the World” for producing tea.  There are several tea gardens in Jorhat, as many as 135 tea gardens including out gardens, and that justifies the title of “Tea Capital”. The environment and soil type of Jorhat makes it possible for the growth of best kind of tea.

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